The lands of Egypt are principally made up of desert and semi-arid terrains. Egypt is made up of four parts: The Nile Valley, Western Desert, Eastern Desert, and Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is globally known for one of the oldest agricultural civilizations in history. Unlike many parts of the world, the population is generally rural dominated– nearly 60% of the latest census were said to take part in agricultural pursuits.
Being largely filled with dessert terrains, Egypt receives little to no rainfall along the northern coast. As a consequence, the country’s sole source of water supply is the Nile; therefore, Egyptian agriculture relies heavily upon irrigation systems. Cereals are Egypt’s principal commodity; however, they are coupled with sugarcane, legumes, fibres, sugar crop, fruits and vegetables to account for the agricultural sector of the country’s economy.
While Egyptian agriculture has seen drastic developments over the last couple of decades, the progressions have created downfalls, as well. The changes have impacted farmers more than anything, it has affected their cropping patterns, technologies, incomes, and has generated dramatic changes among the markets. Since the 1980’s many reforms have been attempted by liberalizing agriculture through the elimination of crop area controls.